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August 2021, Volume 71, Issue 8


Understanding HIV outbreak among children in a rural community of Sindh province of Pakistan

Arshad Altaf  , Sharaf Ali Shah  , Rafique Khanani  , Sten Halvor Vermund

The small, rural town of Ratodero in Sindh province of Pakistan became the centre of media attention in April 2019 when a devastating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) outbreak was confirmed primarily among children and some women, with most residing in Ratodero or adjoining villages and towns of the area. The outbreak was unprecedented for Pakistan, reminiscent of paediatric outbreaks from reuse of needles/syringes in Romania and elsewhere.1-3 Nearly all of the infected children had uninfected mothers indicating that perinatal infection was not implicated and that horizontal transmission was responsible

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