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January 2021, Volume 71, Issue 1



It gives us immense pleasure to share this JPMA special supplement with our readers, published as an appurtenance to the 6th AKU Annual Surgical Conference of the Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan. The theme of the conference is 'Surgical Education and Training,' and submissions were invited keeping this theme in mind.

We are grateful for the enormous response from both national and international contributors and a total of 60 manuscripts were received. We adopted JPMA's strict criteria for publication and each submission was first evaluated for plagiarism through specialized computer software. No manuscript was rejected at this level. This was followed


Surgical education and training

Syed Ather Enam  , Hammad Ather  , Nadeem Siddiqui

Surgical education and training has witnessed a paradigm shift in the last three decades. Up until the 20th century, surgical education and training were mainly through an apprenticeship model. Trainees primarily learned by directly observing their mentors and duplicating these actions in their clinical practices1.

In the 20th century, Sir William Halsted introduced a more formal and structured surgical training format, which involves vigorous interactions of trainees with surgical patients. Emphasis was laid on understanding fundamental principles of surgical diseases and acquisition of surgica

Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association has agreed to receive and publish manuscripts in accordance with the principles of the following committees: