Sabeeh Khawar Farooqui ( 1st Year MBBS Student, Ziauddin Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan. )
Mehak Barolia ( 1st Year MBBS Student, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan. )
Madam, in these challenging times stress, has affected every age group. Around 50% of all males and females’ experience post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in their lives.1 Music has proved to be effective to deal with PTSD after an evaluation done by a study showed that patients undergoing music therapy had a significant decrease in PTSD when compared to those patients who did not take any therapy.2 Even though all these measures cross- national lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 3.9 % cross-nationally, half of all global cases were persistent.3 Despite of these deteriorating effects, no preventive and rehabilitative measures can be seen in Pakistan.
A study in 2019 concluded that active music-instruction programmes hold promise to alleviate PTSD and depressive symptoms among the population globally.4 Further, people treated with music therapy had a significant mean difference [p=0.0035] when contrasted with those who did not undergo treatment.2
A study in 2016 concluded that the prevalence of PTSD in Pakistan was 26% (78 out of 299 individuals).5 During the covid-19 pandemic, another study records this percentage to have risen up to 40.2% by June 2020.1 It is evident that PTSD had harmed the population with its radical escalation in pre and post covid-19 pandemic., Therefore it is, crucial to take steps in the right direction by increasing awareness in public and introducing viable and cost-effective methods that are easily accessible to people and aid in resolving this dilemma in its early stages during these challenging times. Implementation of various methods is crucial to reduce the prevalence of PTSD during COVID-19 in Pakistan. Music therapy can serve as one of the interventions to reduce the bars of PTSD in Pakistan significantly.
Conflict of interest: None.
Funding disclosure: None.
1. AD. TM. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Daily Soon Times. [Online]. 2021 [Cited 2021 Jan 8]. Available from: URL: https://soontimes.pk/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd/
2. Carr C, d’Ardenne P, Sloboda A, Scott C, Wang D, Priebe S. Group music therapy for patients with persistent post-traumatic stress disorder--an exploratory randomized controlled trial with mixed methods evaluation. Psychol Psychother 2012; 85: 179–202.
3. Koenen KC, Ratanatharathorn A, Ng L, McLaughlin KA, Bromet EJ, Stein DJ, et al. Posttraumatic stress disorder in the World Mental Health Surveys. Psychol Med 2017; 47: 2260–74.
4. Pezzin LE, Larson ER, Lorber W, McGinley EL, Dillingham TR. Music-instruction intervention for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a randomized pilot study. BMC Psychol 2018; 6: 60.
5. Khan AA, Haider G, Sheikh MR, Ali AF, Khalid Z, Tahir MM, et al. Prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Due to Community Violence Among University Students in the World’s Most Danger Megacity: A Cross-Sectional Study From Pakistan. J Interper Violence 2016; 31: 2302–15.